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Vitamins and minerals

It is important to understand the difference between vitamins and minerals for an overall functional oversight.

 VitaminsMinerals
Chemical compositionOrganic substanceInorganic substance
SourcePlants and animalsSoil and rock
VulnerabilityEasily destroyed by heat, chemical reaction or environmentNot sensitive to external factors
Nutritional requirementNecessary for proper function of the bodyNot all are required and amount often is very little
VITAMINBENEFITSGOOD FOOD SOURCES
RETINOIDS AND CAROTENE 
(vitamin A; includes retinol, retinal, retinyl esters,
Essential for vision Keeps tissues and skin healthy. Plays an important role in bone growth and in the immune system. Carotenoids act as antioxidants.Sources of retinoids: beef liver, eggs, shrimp, fish, fortified milk, butter, cheddar cheese, Swiss cheese

Sources of beta-carotene: sweet potatoes, carrots, pumpkins, squash, spinach, mangoes, turnip greens
THIAMIN (vitamin B1)Helps convert food into energy. Needed for healthy skin, hair, muscles, and brain and is critical for nerve function.Pork chops, brown rice, ham, soymilk, watermelons, acorn squash
RIBOFLAVIN
(vitamin B2)
Helps convert food into energy. Needed for healthy skin, hair, blood, and brainMilk, eggs, yogurt, cheese, meats, green leafy vegetables, whole and enriched grains and cereals.
NIACIN (vitamin B3, nicotinic acid)Helps convert food into energy. Essential for healthy skin, blood cells, brain, and nervous systemMeat, poultry, fish, fortified and whole grains, mushrooms, potatoes, peanut butter
PANTOTHENIC ACID (vitamin B5)Helps convert food into energy. Helps make lipids (fats), neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, and hemoglobinWide variety of nutritious foods, including chicken, egg yolk, whole grains, broccoli, mushrooms, avocados, tomato products
PYRIDOXINE (vitamin B6, pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine)Aids in lowering homocysteine levels. Helps convert tryptophan to niacin and serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays key roles in sleep, appetite, and moods. Helps make red blood cells Influences cognitive abilities and immune functionMeat, fish, poultry, legumes, tofu and other soy products, potatoes, non-citrus fruits such as bananas and watermelons
COBALAMIN 
(vitamin B12)
Aids in lowering homocysteine levels. Assists in making new cells and breaking down some fatty acids and amino acids. Protects nerve cells and encourages their normal growth Helps make red blood cells and DNAMeat, poultry, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, fortified cereals, fortified soymilk
BIOTINHelps convert food into energy and synthesize glucose. Help make and break down some fatty acids. Needed for healthy bones and hairMany foods, including whole grains, organ meats, egg yolks, soybeans, and fish
ASCORBIC ACID 
(vitamin C)
Help make collagen and support blood vessel walls. Help make the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine Acts as an antioxidant, neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cells. Bolsters the immune systemFruits and fruit juices (especially citrus), potatoes, broccoli, bell peppers, spinach, strawberries, tomatoes, Brussels sprouts
CHOLINEHelps make and release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which aids in many nerve and brain activities. Plays a role in metabolizing and transporting fatsMany foods, especially milk, eggs, liver, salmon, and peanuts
CALCIFEROL 
(vitamin D)
Helps maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus, which strengthen bones. Helps form teeth and bones.Fortified milk or margarine, fortified cereals, fatty fish
ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL 
(vitamin E)
Acts as antioxidant, neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cells. Protects vitamin A and certain lipids from damage.A wide variety of foods, including vegetable oils, salad dressings, and margarine made with vegetable oils, wheat germ, leafy green vegetables, whole grains, nuts
FOLIC ACID
(vitamin B9, folate, folacin)
Vital for new cell creation.Fortified grains and cereals, asparagus, okra, spinach, turnip greens, broccoli, legumes like black-eyed peas and chickpeas, orange juice, tomato juice
PHYLLOQUINONE, MENADIONE
 (vitamin K)
Activates proteins and calcium essential to blood clotting.Cabbage, liver, eggs, milk, spinach, broccoli, sprouts, kale, collards, and other green vegetables

Available minerals

Minerals are important for our body. But only in exceedingly small amounts. Besides the amount the shape of delivery is important. Our body is not able to consume minerals when not chelated. The shape of chelation is the point of interest.

CHELATION is a natural process.  The word chelate derives from the Greek word “chel”, meaning a crab’s claw, and refers to the pincer-like way the metal is bound.  Chemically, a chelate is a compound from the complexing of cations with organic compounds resulting in a ring structure. 

Minerals have the ability and need to chemically interact as soon as possible. To prevent chemical reactions between minerals within an organism nature did create the option of chelation. Encapsulating or inactivating chemical reactions when entering the biological entity. The best chelating partners are Hydroxamate Siderophores, Organic Acids, and Amino Acids.

Organic acids and amino acids such as citric acid and glycine are naturally occurring chelating agents.  Glycine is the simplest amino acid with a molecular weight of 75.  The chelates usually contain 2 moles of ligand (glycine) and one mole of metal as demonstrated in the following figure.

http://dev.safergro.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/GLYCINE-MOLES.jpg

Citric acid is one of the organic acids commonly used as chelating agents. Other naturally occurring organic acids such as malonic acid and gluconic acid also play an important role in plant mineral nutrition.

The typical structure of chelates with known organic acids are shown below for citric acid, tartaric acid, gluconic acid, and glycine.

http://dev.safergro.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Chelation-JHB-P2.jpg

M=Metal

Why is chelation important for nature and the human being?

Increase the availability of nutrients.

Prevent mineral nutrients from forming insoluble precipitates.

An example is iron in high pH soil. In high pH soil, iron reacts with a hydroxyl group (OH) to form the insoluble ferric hydroxide (Fe(OH)3) which is not available to plants.

Fe+3 + 3 OH-——–>Fe (OH)3
SolubleInsoluble

Chelation prevents this reaction from happening and hence render iron available to plants.

Reduce toxicity of some metal ions to plants. Chelation in the soil may reduce the concentration of some metal ions to a non-toxic level.
Prevent nutrients from leaching. Metal ions forming chelates are more stable than the free ions. Chelation process reduces the loss of nutrients through leaching.
Increase the mobility of plant nutrients. Chelation increases the mobility of nutrients in the soil. This increased mobility enhances the uptake of these nutrients by plants.
Suppress the growth of plant pathogens.
Some chelating agents may suppress the growth of plant pathogens by depriving iron and hence favor plant growth.

(with gratitude to the company JH Biotech )

MINERALBENEFITSGOOD FOOD SOURCES
CALCIUMBuilds and protects bones and teeth. Helps with muscle contractions and relaxation, blood clotting, and nerve impulse transmission. Plays a role in hormone secretion and enzyme activation. Helps maintain healthy blood pressureYogurt, cheese, milk, tofu, sardines, salmon, fortified juices, leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli and kale (but not spinach or Swiss chard, which have binders that lessen absorption)
CHLORIDEBalances fluids in the body. A component of stomach acid, essential to digestionSalt (sodium chloride), soy sauce, processed foods
CHROMIUMEnhances the activity of insulin, helps maintain normal blood glucose levels, and is needed to free energy from glucoseMeat, poultry, fish, eggs, potatoes, some cereals, nuts, cheese
COPPERPlays an important role in iron metabolism and the immune system. Helps make red blood cellsLiver, shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole-grain products, beans, prunes, cocoa, black pepper
FLUORIDEEncourages strong bone formation. Keeps dental cavities from starting or worseningWater that is fluoridated, toothpaste with fluoride, marine fish, teas
IODINEPart of the thyroid hormone, which helps set body temperature and influences nerve and muscle function, reproduction, and growth. Prevents goiter and a congenital thyroid disorderIodized salt, processed foods, seafood
IRONHelps hemoglobin in red blood cells and myoglobin in muscle cells ferry oxygen throughout the body. Needed for chemical reactions in the body and for making amino acids, collagen, neurotransmitters, and hormonesRed meat, poultry, eggs, fruits, green vegetables, fortified bread and grain products
MAGNESIUMNeeded for many chemical reactions in the body Works with calcium in muscle contraction, blood clotting, and regulation of blood pressure. Helps build bones and teethGreen vegetables such as spinach and broccoli, legumes, cashews, sunflower seeds and other seeds, halibut, whole-wheat bread, milk
MANGANESEHelps form bones. Helps metabolize amino acids, cholesterol, and carbohydratesFish, nuts, legumes, whole grains, tea
MOLYBDENUMPart of several enzymes, one of which helps ward off a form of severe neurological damage in infants that can lead to early deathLegumes, nuts, grain products, milk
PHOSPHORUSHelps build and protect bones and teeth. Part of DNA and RNA. Helps convert food into energy. Part of phospholipids, which carry lipids in blood and help shuttle nutrients into and out of cellsA wide variety of foods, including milk and dairy products, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, liver, green peas, broccoli, potatoes, almonds
POTASSIUMBalances fluids in the body. Helps maintain a steady heartbeat and send nerve impulses. Needed for muscle contractions. A diet rich in potassium seems to lower blood pressure. Getting enough potassium from the diet may benefit bonesMeat, milk, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes
SELENIUMActs as antioxidant, neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cells. Helps regulate thyroid hormone activityOrgan meats, seafood, walnuts, sometimes plants (depends on soil content), grain products
SODIUMBalances fluids in the body. Help send nerve impulses. Needed for muscle contractions. Impacts blood pressure; even modest reductions in salt consumption can lower blood pressureSalt, soy sauce, processed foods, vegetables
SULFURHelps form bridges that shape and stabilize some protein structures. Needed for healthy hair, skin, and nailsProtein-rich foods, such as meats, fish, poultry, nuts, legumes
ZINCHelps form many enzymes and proteins and create new cells. Frees vitamin A from storage in the liver. Needed for immune system, taste, smell, and wound healing. When taken with certain antioxidants, zinc may delay the progression of age-related macular degenerationRed meat, poultry, oysters and some other seafood, fortified cereals, beans, nuts
how gelation works