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Vitamins and minerals
It is important to understand the difference between vitamins and minerals for an overall functional oversight.
|Chemical composition||Organic substance||Inorganic substance|
|Source||Plants and animals||Soil and rock|
|Vulnerability||Easily destroyed by heat, chemical reaction or environment||Not sensitive to external factors|
|Nutritional requirement||Necessary for proper function of the body||Not all are required and amount often is very little|
|VITAMIN||BENEFITS||GOOD FOOD SOURCES|
|RETINOIDS AND CAROTENE |
(vitamin A; includes retinol, retinal, retinyl esters,
|Essential for vision Keeps tissues and skin healthy. Plays an important role in bone growth and in the immune system. Carotenoids act as antioxidants.||Sources of retinoids: beef liver, eggs, shrimp, fish, fortified milk, butter, cheddar cheese, Swiss cheese|
Sources of beta-carotene: sweet potatoes, carrots, pumpkins, squash, spinach, mangoes, turnip greens
|THIAMIN (vitamin B1)||Helps convert food into energy. Needed for healthy skin, hair, muscles, and brain and is critical for nerve function.||Pork chops, brown rice, ham, soymilk, watermelons, acorn squash|
|Helps convert food into energy. Needed for healthy skin, hair, blood, and brain||Milk, eggs, yogurt, cheese, meats, green leafy vegetables, whole and enriched grains and cereals.|
|NIACIN (vitamin B3, nicotinic acid)||Helps convert food into energy. Essential for healthy skin, blood cells, brain, and nervous system||Meat, poultry, fish, fortified and whole grains, mushrooms, potatoes, peanut butter|
|PANTOTHENIC ACID (vitamin B5)||Helps convert food into energy. Helps make lipids (fats), neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, and hemoglobin||Wide variety of nutritious foods, including chicken, egg yolk, whole grains, broccoli, mushrooms, avocados, tomato products|
|PYRIDOXINE (vitamin B6, pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine)||Aids in lowering homocysteine levels. Helps convert tryptophan to niacin and serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays key roles in sleep, appetite, and moods. Helps make red blood cells Influences cognitive abilities and immune function||Meat, fish, poultry, legumes, tofu and other soy products, potatoes, non-citrus fruits such as bananas and watermelons|
|Aids in lowering homocysteine levels. Assists in making new cells and breaking down some fatty acids and amino acids. Protects nerve cells and encourages their normal growth Helps make red blood cells and DNA||Meat, poultry, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, fortified cereals, fortified soymilk|
|BIOTIN||Helps convert food into energy and synthesize glucose. Help make and break down some fatty acids. Needed for healthy bones and hair||Many foods, including whole grains, organ meats, egg yolks, soybeans, and fish|
|ASCORBIC ACID |
|Help make collagen and support blood vessel walls. Help make the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine Acts as an antioxidant, neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cells. Bolsters the immune system||Fruits and fruit juices (especially citrus), potatoes, broccoli, bell peppers, spinach, strawberries, tomatoes, Brussels sprouts|
|CHOLINE||Helps make and release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which aids in many nerve and brain activities. Plays a role in metabolizing and transporting fats||Many foods, especially milk, eggs, liver, salmon, and peanuts|
|Helps maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus, which strengthen bones. Helps form teeth and bones.||Fortified milk or margarine, fortified cereals, fatty fish|
|Acts as antioxidant, neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cells. Protects vitamin A and certain lipids from damage.||A wide variety of foods, including vegetable oils, salad dressings, and margarine made with vegetable oils, wheat germ, leafy green vegetables, whole grains, nuts|
(vitamin B9, folate, folacin)
|Vital for new cell creation.||Fortified grains and cereals, asparagus, okra, spinach, turnip greens, broccoli, legumes like black-eyed peas and chickpeas, orange juice, tomato juice|
|Activates proteins and calcium essential to blood clotting.||Cabbage, liver, eggs, milk, spinach, broccoli, sprouts, kale, collards, and other green vegetables|
Minerals are important for our body. But only in exceedingly small amounts. Besides the amount the shape of delivery is important. Our body is not able to consume minerals when not chelated. The shape of chelation is the point of interest.
CHELATION is a natural process. The word chelate derives from the Greek word “chel”, meaning a crab’s claw, and refers to the pincer-like way the metal is bound. Chemically, a chelate is a compound from the complexing of cations with organic compounds resulting in a ring structure.
Minerals have the ability and need to chemically interact as soon as possible. To prevent chemical reactions between minerals within an organism nature did create the option of chelation. Encapsulating or inactivating chemical reactions when entering the biological entity. The best chelating partners are Hydroxamate Siderophores, Organic Acids, and Amino Acids.
Organic acids and amino acids such as citric acid and glycine are naturally occurring chelating agents. Glycine is the simplest amino acid with a molecular weight of 75. The chelates usually contain 2 moles of ligand (glycine) and one mole of metal as demonstrated in the following figure.
Citric acid is one of the organic acids commonly used as chelating agents. Other naturally occurring organic acids such as malonic acid and gluconic acid also play an important role in plant mineral nutrition.
The typical structure of chelates with known organic acids are shown below for citric acid, tartaric acid, gluconic acid, and glycine.
Why is chelation important for nature and the human being?
Increase the availability of nutrients.
Prevent mineral nutrients from forming insoluble precipitates.
An example is iron in high pH soil. In high pH soil, iron reacts with a hydroxyl group (OH–) to form the insoluble ferric hydroxide (Fe(OH)3) which is not available to plants.
|Fe+3 + 3 OH-||——–>||Fe (OH)3|
Chelation prevents this reaction from happening and hence render iron available to plants.
Reduce toxicity of some metal ions to plants. Chelation in the soil may reduce the concentration of some metal ions to a non-toxic level.
Prevent nutrients from leaching. Metal ions forming chelates are more stable than the free ions. Chelation process reduces the loss of nutrients through leaching.
Increase the mobility of plant nutrients. Chelation increases the mobility of nutrients in the soil. This increased mobility enhances the uptake of these nutrients by plants.
Suppress the growth of plant pathogens.
Some chelating agents may suppress the growth of plant pathogens by depriving iron and hence favor plant growth.
(with gratitude to the company JH Biotech )
|MINERAL||BENEFITS||GOOD FOOD SOURCES|
|CALCIUM||Builds and protects bones and teeth. Helps with muscle contractions and relaxation, blood clotting, and nerve impulse transmission. Plays a role in hormone secretion and enzyme activation. Helps maintain healthy blood pressure||Yogurt, cheese, milk, tofu, sardines, salmon, fortified juices, leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli and kale (but not spinach or Swiss chard, which have binders that lessen absorption)|
|CHLORIDE||Balances fluids in the body. A component of stomach acid, essential to digestion||Salt (sodium chloride), soy sauce, processed foods|
|CHROMIUM||Enhances the activity of insulin, helps maintain normal blood glucose levels, and is needed to free energy from glucose||Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, potatoes, some cereals, nuts, cheese|
|COPPER||Plays an important role in iron metabolism and the immune system. Helps make red blood cells||Liver, shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole-grain products, beans, prunes, cocoa, black pepper|
|FLUORIDE||Encourages strong bone formation. Keeps dental cavities from starting or worsening||Water that is fluoridated, toothpaste with fluoride, marine fish, teas|
|IODINE||Part of the thyroid hormone, which helps set body temperature and influences nerve and muscle function, reproduction, and growth. Prevents goiter and a congenital thyroid disorder||Iodized salt, processed foods, seafood|
|IRON||Helps hemoglobin in red blood cells and myoglobin in muscle cells ferry oxygen throughout the body. Needed for chemical reactions in the body and for making amino acids, collagen, neurotransmitters, and hormones||Red meat, poultry, eggs, fruits, green vegetables, fortified bread and grain products|
|MAGNESIUM||Needed for many chemical reactions in the body Works with calcium in muscle contraction, blood clotting, and regulation of blood pressure. Helps build bones and teeth||Green vegetables such as spinach and broccoli, legumes, cashews, sunflower seeds and other seeds, halibut, whole-wheat bread, milk|
|MANGANESE||Helps form bones. Helps metabolize amino acids, cholesterol, and carbohydrates||Fish, nuts, legumes, whole grains, tea|
|MOLYBDENUM||Part of several enzymes, one of which helps ward off a form of severe neurological damage in infants that can lead to early death||Legumes, nuts, grain products, milk|
|PHOSPHORUS||Helps build and protect bones and teeth. Part of DNA and RNA. Helps convert food into energy. Part of phospholipids, which carry lipids in blood and help shuttle nutrients into and out of cells||A wide variety of foods, including milk and dairy products, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, liver, green peas, broccoli, potatoes, almonds|
|POTASSIUM||Balances fluids in the body. Helps maintain a steady heartbeat and send nerve impulses. Needed for muscle contractions. A diet rich in potassium seems to lower blood pressure. Getting enough potassium from the diet may benefit bones||Meat, milk, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes|
|SELENIUM||Acts as antioxidant, neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cells. Helps regulate thyroid hormone activity||Organ meats, seafood, walnuts, sometimes plants (depends on soil content), grain products|
|SODIUM||Balances fluids in the body. Help send nerve impulses. Needed for muscle contractions. Impacts blood pressure; even modest reductions in salt consumption can lower blood pressure||Salt, soy sauce, processed foods, vegetables|
|SULFUR||Helps form bridges that shape and stabilize some protein structures. Needed for healthy hair, skin, and nails||Protein-rich foods, such as meats, fish, poultry, nuts, legumes|
|ZINC||Helps form many enzymes and proteins and create new cells. Frees vitamin A from storage in the liver. Needed for immune system, taste, smell, and wound healing. When taken with certain antioxidants, zinc may delay the progression of age-related macular degeneration||Red meat, poultry, oysters and some other seafood, fortified cereals, beans, nuts|